Works Cited in A Medieval Woman’s Companion

Here are the texts I reference or used in writing A Medieval Woman’s Companion. I encourage you to read them.  There are many more wonderful sources about the Middle Ages and medieval women.

Primary Works (Modern Editions of Material Originally Written in the Middle Ages)

Anglo-Saxon Penitentials: A cultural database.

Atherton, Mark, trans. Hildegard von Bingen: Selected Writings. London: Penguin Books, 2001.

Baird, Joseph L. ed. The Personal Correspondence of Hildegard of Bingen.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Baird, Joseph L. and Radd K. Ehrman. The Letters of Hildegard of Bingen. Volume 1. NY: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Barratt, Alexandra, ed. The Knowing of Woman’s Kind in Childing: A Middle English Version of Material Derived from the Trotula and Other Sources. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2001.

Birgitta of Sweden. Saint Bride and Her Book: Birgitta of Sweden’s Revelations. Trans. Julia Bolton Holloway. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2000.

Blamires, Alcuin, ed. Woman Defamed and Woman Defended: An Anthology of Medieval Texts. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.

Bliss, W. H., ed. Papal Petitions to the Pope 1342-1419. Vol. I. London, Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1896.

Blois, Peter of: Letter 154 to Queen Eleanor, 1173.

Boccaccio, Giovanni. Famous Women. Ed. and trans. Virginia Brown. Cambridge, MA: The I Tatti Renaissance Library/Harvard UP, 2001.

Bogin, Meg, ed. and trans. The Women Troubadours. NY: W. W. Norton & Company, 1980.

Bradley, S.A.J., trans. and ed. Anglo-Saxon Poetry. London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1982.

Bradstreet, Anne. “Prologue.”

Broughton, Bradford B, ed. and trans. “Richard the Lion-Hearted” and Other Medieval English Romances. NY: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1966.

Campbell, Alistair, ed. and trans. Encomium Emmae Reginae. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1949/1998.

Capellanus, Andreas. The Art of Courtly Love.

Cartagena, Teresa de. The Writings of Teresa de Cartagena: Translated with Introduction, Notes, and Interpretive Essay. Trans. Dayle Seidenspinner-Núñez. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1998.

Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Riverside Chaucer. Larry D. Benson, ed. 3rd. Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1987.

Christine Carpenter. Brochure from St. James’ Church, Shere, England.

Christine de Pizan. The Book of the City of Ladies. Earl Jeffrey Richards, trans. NY: Persea Books, 1982.

Christine de Pizan. “Ditié de Jehanne D’Arc. Eds. Angus J. Kennedy and Kenneth Varty. Medium Ævum Monographs New Series IX. 1977. Accessed May 20, 2013. crditie

Clemence of Barking. The Life of St Catherine. In Jocelyn Wogan-Browne and Glyn S. Burgess, trans. Virgin Lives and Holy Deaths: Two Exemplary Biographies for Anglo-Norman Women. London: Everyman/J.M. Dent, 1996.

Crawford, Anne, ed. Letters of the Queens of England, 1100- 1547. Stroud, Gloucester: Sutton, 1997.

Donovan, Leslie A. Women Saints’ Lives in Old English Prose. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell & Brewer, 1999.

Garmonsway, G. N., trans. and ed. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1990.

Green, Monica H. The Trotula: An English Translation of the Medieval Compendium of Women’s Medicine. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.

Heaney, Seamus, trans. Beowulf: A New Verse Translation. NY: W. W. Norton & Company, 2000.

Julian of Norwich. Revelations of Divine Love (Short Text and Long Text). Trans. Elizabeth Spearing. London: Penguin Books, 1998.

Kehew, Robert. Lark in the Morning: The Verses of the Troubadours A Bilingual Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

Kempe, Margery. The Book of Margery Kempe. Ed. and trans. Lynn Staley. NY: W. W. Norton, 2001.

Komnene, Anna. The Alexiad. Trans. E. R. A. Sewter; Rev. Peter Frankopan. London: Penguin Books, 2009.

Kunz, Keneva, trans. The Saga of the People of Laxardal and Bolli Bollason’s Tale. Ed. Bergljót S. Kristjánsdóttir. London: Penguin Books, 2008.

Kunz, Keneva, trans. The Vinland Sagas. London: Penguin, 2008.

Larrington, Carolyne. Women and Writing in Medieval Europe: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, 1995.

Margaret of Beverley.

Marie de France. The Lais of Marie de France. Trans. Glyn S. Burgess and Keith Busby. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin, 1999.

Paden, William D. and Frances Freeman Paden. Troubadour Poems From the South of France. Woodbridge, Suffolk: D. S. Brewer, 2007.

Pálsson, Hermann and Paul Edwards, trans. Eyrbyggja Saga. London: Penguin Books, 1989.

Petroff, Elizabeth Alvilda. Medieval Women’s Visionary Literature. NY: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Radice, Betty, trans. Revised ed. M. T. Clancy. The Letters of Abelard and Heloise. London: Penguin Books, 2003.

Roche-Mahdi, Sarah, trans. Silence: A Thirteenth-Century French Romance. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 2007.

Ross, James Bruce and Mary Martin McLaughlin, eds. The Portable Medieval Reader. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977.

Rowland, Beryl, ed. and trans. Medieval Woman’s Guide to Health: The First English Gynecological Handbook. Kent, OH: The Kent State University Press, 1981.

Saint Jerome. “Letter XXII. To Eustochium.”

Shaw, George Bernard. Saint Joan: A Chronicle Play In Six Scenes And An Epilogue (1924).

Sherley-Price, Leo, trans. Bede: Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Revised R. E. Latham. Introduction D. H. Farmer. London: Penguin Books, 1990.

Silvas, Anna. Jutta and Hildegard: The Biographical Sources. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1998.

Straubhaar, Sandra Ballif, trans. and ed. Old Norse Women’s Poetry: The Voice of Female Skalds. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 2011.

Talbot, C. H., trans. The Life of Christina of Markyate: A Twelfth-Century Holy Woman. Samuel Fanous and Henrietta Leyser, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Trask, Willard, trans. Joan of Arc in Her Own Words. NY: Turtle Point Press, 1996.

Twelfth Ecumenical Council: Lateran IV 1215.

Virgoe, Roger, ed. Private Life in the Fifteenth Century: Illustrated Letters of the Paston Family, New York, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1989.

Watt, Diane, trans. The Paston Women: Selected Letters. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 2004.

Wilkinson, John. Egeria’s Travels to the Holy Land. Jerusalem: Ariel, 1981.

Wilson, Katharina, trans. The Plays of Hrotsvit of Gandersheim. NY: Garland Pub., Inc., 1989.

Wolfram von Eschenbach. Parzival. A. T. Hutto, trans. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin, 1982.


Secondary Works (Writings about the Middle Ages)

Alaimo, Stacy and Susan Hekman, eds. Material Feminisms. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008.

Allen, S. J. and Emilie Amt, eds. The Crusades: A Reader. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010.

Anzaldúa, Gloria. Borderlands/La Frontera. Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar, 2007: 247-258.

Armstrong, Dorsey Ann W. Astell, and Howell Chickering, eds. Magistra Doctissima: Essays in Honor of Bonnie Wheeler. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2013.

Ashley, Kathleen. “Cultures of Devotion.” In Bennett and Karras: 511-526.

Astell, Mary. A Serious Proposal to the Ladies. Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 28-31.

Atwood, Margaret. “On Being a ‘Woman Writer’: Paradoxes and Dilemmas.” Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 219-222.

Baker, Derek, ed. Medieval Women. Oxford: Basil Blackford, 1978.

Barron, M. Caroline, “The Education and Training of Girls in Fifteenth-century London.” In Dunn: 139-153; 205-224.

Baumgarten, Elisheva. Mothers and Children: Jewish Family Life in Medieval Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004.

—. “‘A Separate People’? Some Directions for Comparative Research on Medieval Women.” Journal of Medieval History 34 (2008): 212-228.

Bell, Rudolph M. Holy Anorexia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.

Bennett Judith, M., Elizabeth A. Clark, Jean F. O’Barr, B. Anne Vilen, and Sarah Westphal-Wihl, eds. Sisters and Workers in the Middle Ages. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

Bennett, Judith M. and Ruth Mazo Karras, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Women and Gender in Medieval Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Berman, Constance H. “Gender at the Medieval Millennium.” In Bennett and Karras, 545-560.

Boland, Eavan. “Letter to a Young Woman Poet.” Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 278-287.

Bordo, Susan. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body. Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 744-756.

Brown, Elizabeth A. R. “Eleanor of Aquitaine Reconsidered: The Woman and her Seasons.” In Wheeler and Parsons 1-54.

Bull, Marcus. Thinking Medieval: An Introduction to the Study of the Middle Ages. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

Bullough, Vern L. and James Brundage. Sexual Practices & the Medieval Church. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1982.

Butler, Judith. “Imitation and Gender Insubordination.” Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 708-722.

Bynum, Caroline Walker. Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Woman. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

—. Jesus as Mother: Studies in the Spirituality of the High Middle Ages. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.

Chodorow, Nancy. Family Structure and Feminine Personality. Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 367-388.

Cooper, Anna Julia. “The Higher Education of Women.” Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 112-118.

Damico, Helen. “Beowulf’s Foreign Queen and the Politics of Eleventh-Century England.” In Virginia Blanton and Helene Scheck, eds. Intertexts: Studies in Anglo-Saxon Culture Presented to Paul E. Szarmach. Tempe, Arizona: ACMRS/Brepols, 2008: 209-240.

De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex. Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 300-323.

DeVries, Kelly R. “’Because It Was Paris’: Joan of Arc’s Attack on Paris Reconsidered.” In Armstrong, Astell, and Chickering: 123-131.

Drell, Joanna H. “Aristocratic Economies: Women and Family.” In Bennett and Karras: 327-342.

Dronke, Peter. Women Writers of the Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge, 1984.

DuCille, Ann. “Blue Notes on Black Sexuality: Sex and the Texts of the Twenties and Thirties.” Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 957-962.

Dunn, Diana E. S., ed. Courts, Counties and the Capital in the Later Middle Ages. Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1996.

Earenfight, Theresa. Queenship in Medieval Europe. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Ebenesersdóttir, Sigríður Sunna, Ásgeir Sigurðsson, Federico Sánchez-Quinto, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Kári Stefánsson, and Agnar Helgason. “A New Subclade of mtDNA Haplogroup C1 Found in Icelanders: Evidence of Pre-Columbian Contact?” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 144 (2011): 92-99.

Edgeworth, Maria. Letters to Literary Ladies. Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 48-54.

Farmer, David Hugh. The Oxford Dictionary of Saints. 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Ferrante, Joan M. “Women’s Role in Latin Letters from the Fourth to the Early Twelfth Century.” In McCash: 71-104.

Field, Sean L. The Beguine, the Angel, and the Inquisitor: The Trials of Marguerite Porete and Guiard of Cressonessart. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2012.

Fraioli, Deborah. “Joan of Arc.” In Schaus 430-433.

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African-American Literary Criticism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Gibbons, Rachel. “The Piety of Isabeau of Bavaria, Queen of France, 1385-1422.” In Dunn: 205-224.

Gies, Frances and Joseph. Women in the Middle Ages: The Lives of Real Women in a Vibrant Age of Transition. NY: HarperPerennial, 1978.

Gilbert, Dorothy. “Juliana Berners: From the Book of St. Albans.” In The Norton Anthology of Women’s Literature: The Traditions in English. 2nd Edition. Eds. Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar. New York: Norton, 1996: 25-27.

Gilbert, Sandra M. and Susan Gubar, eds. Feminist Literary Theory and Criticism: A Norton Reader. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2007.

Gilbert, Sandra M. and Susan Gubar. The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination. Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 448-459.

Gilligan, Carol. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development. Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 567-571.

González, Cristina. “Qasmūna Bint Ismā’īl.” In Schaus 681.

Gouma-Peterson, Thalia, ed. Anna Komnene and Her Times. NY: Garland Publishing, Inc., 2000.

Green, Monica H. “Conversing with the Minority: Relations among Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Women in the High Middle Ages.” Journal of Medieval History 34 (2008): 105-118.

—. “Getting to the Source: The Case of Jacoba Felicie and the Impact of the Portable Medieval Reader on the Canon of Medieval Women’s History.” Medieval Feminist Forum 42.1 (2006): 49-62.

—. Making Women’s Medicine Masculine: The Rise of Male Authority in Pre-Modern Gynaecology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

—, ed. and trans. The Trotula: An English Translation of the Medieval Compendium of Women’s Medicine. Philadelphia. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.

—-. “Who/What is ‘Trotula’?” Latest update November 2, 2013. Accessed April 11, 2015.

—-. “Women’s Medical Practice and Health Care in Medieval Europe.” Signs 14.2 (1989): 434-473.

— and Daniel Lord Smail. “The Trial of Floreta d’Ays (1403): Jews, Christians, and obstetrics in later medieval Marseille.” Journal of Medieval History 34 (2008): 184-211.

Haraway, Donna. “A Manifesto for Cyborgs.” Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 584-601.

Herlihy, David. Opera Muliebria: Women and Work in Medieval Europe. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1990.

Hill, Barbara. “Actions Speak Louder Than Words: Anna Komnene’s Attempted Usurpation.” In Gouma-Peterson: 45-62.

Hopenwasser, Nanda and Signe Wegener. “Vox Matris: The Influence of St. Birgitta’s Revelations on The Book of Margery Kempe: St. Birgitta and Margery Kempe As Wives and Mothers.” In Stevenson and Ho: 61-85.

Howell, Martha C. “Gender in the Transition to Merchant Capitalism.” In Bennett and Karras: 561-576.

Hoyle, Victoria. “The Bonds that Bind: Money Lending Between Anglo-Jewish and Christian Women in the Plea Rolls of the Exchequer of the Jews, 1218-1280.” Journal of Medieval History 34 (2008): 119-129.

Huneycutt, Lois L. “Alianora Regina Anglorum: Eleanor of Aquitaine and Her Anglo-Norman Predecessors as Queens of England.” In Wheeler and Parsons: 115-132.

—. “Eleanor of Aquitaine.” In Schaus:243-244.

—. “’Proclaiming her dignity abroad’: The Literary and Artistic Network of Matilda of Scotland, Queen of England 1100-1118.” In McCash: 155-174.

Jesch, Judith. Women in the Viking Age. Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press, 1991.

Karras, Ruth Mazo. Unmarriages: Women, Men and Sexual Unions in the Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press, 2012.

Kelly-Gadol, Joan. “The Social Relation of the Sexes: Methodological Implications of Women’s History.” Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 430-436.

Kilfoyle, Sarah. Unpublished paper.

Kirvan, John, ed. Teresa of Avila. Let Nothing Disturb You: A Journey to the Center of the Soul with Teresa of Avila. Notre Dame, IN: Ave Maria Press, 1996.

Labarge, Margaret Wade. A Small Sound of the Trumpet: Women in Medieval Life. Boston: Beacon Press, 1986.

Lees, Clare, ed. Medieval Masculinities: Regarding Men in the Middle Ages. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994.

Makowski, Elizabeth M. Canon Law and Cloistered Women: Periculoso and its commentators, 1298-1545. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1999.

—. “When is a Beguine not a Beguine? Names, Norms, and Nuance in Canonical Literature.” In L. Böhringer, J. Kolpacoff Deane, and H. van Engen, eds. Labels and Libels: Naming Beguines in Northern Medieval Europe. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2014: 85-100.

Martineau, Harriet. Autobiography. Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 106-9.

McCash, June Hall, ed. The Cultural Patronage of Medieval Women. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press, 1996.

McCracken, Peggy. “Scandalizing Desire: Eleanor of Aquitaine and the Chroniclers. In Wheeler and Parsons, 247-263.

McNamara, Jo Ann. “The Herrenfrage: The Restructuring of the Gender System 1050-1150.” In Lees: 3-29.

Miles, Laura Saetveit. “The Origins and Development of the Virgin Mary’s Book at the Annunciation.” Speculum 89.3 (2014): 632-669.

Millay, S. Lea. “The Voice of the Court Woman Poet.” In Stevenson and Ho 91-117.

Miller, Tanya Stabler. The Beguines of Medieval Paris: Gender, Patronage, and Spiritual Authority. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014.

Millett, Kate. Sexual Politics. Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 336-350.

Moi, Toril. What is a Woman? And Other Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999

Morrison, Susan Signe. Women Pilgrims in Late Medieval England: Private Piety as Public Performance. London: Routledge, 2000.

Morrison, Toni. “Unspeakable Things Unspoken: The Afro-American Presence in American Literature.” Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar, 2007: 266-278.

Newman, Barbara. From Virile Woman to WomanChrist: Studies in Medieval Religion and Literature. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.

Nichols, James Mansfield. “The Arabic Verses of Qasmūna Bint Ismā’īl ibn Bagdālah.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 13 (1981): 155-158.

Nicholson, Helen. The Crusades. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2004.

—. “Women on the Third Crusade.” Journal of Medieval History 23.4 (1997): 335-349.

Nin, Anaïs. The Diary. Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 148-9.

Obrist, Barbara. “The Swedish Visionary: Saint Bridget.” In Katharina Wilson (1984): 227-251.

Orme, Nicholas. Fleas, Flies, and Friars: Children’s Poetry from the Middle Ages. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2011.

Ortner, Sherry B. “Is Female to Male as Nature is to Culture?” Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 350-367.

Pappano, Margaret Aziza. “Marie de France, Aliénor d’Aquitaine, and the Alien Queen.” In Wheeler and Parsons 337-367.

Pinzino, Jane Marie. “Speaking of Angels: A Fifteenth-Century Bishop in Defense of Joan of Arc’s Mystical Voices.” In Wheeler and Wood: 161-176.

Rich, Adrienne. “When We Dead Awaken: Writing as Re-Vision.” Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 188-200.

Russ, Joanna. “What Can a Heroine Do? or Why Women Can’t Write.” Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 200-211.

Schaus, Margaret, ed. Women and Gender in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia. NY: Routledge, 2006.

Schibanoff, Susan. “True Lies: Transvestism and Idolatry in the Trial of Joan of Arc.” In Wheeler and Wood 1996, 31-60.

Segol, Marla. “Representing the Body in Poems by Medieval Muslim Women.” Medieval Feminist Forum 45 (2009): 147-169.

Shank, Michael H. “A Female University Student in Late Medieval Kraków.” In Bennett, Clark, O’Barr, and Westphal-Wihl: 190-197.

Stevenson, Barbara and Cynthia Ho, eds. Crossing the Bridge: Comparative Essays on Medieval European and Heian Japanese Women Writers. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000.

Sweet, Victoria. “Hildegard of Bingen and the Greening of Medieval Medicine.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 73.3 (1999): 381-403.

Tolhurst, Fiona. “What Ever Happened to Eleanor? Reflections of Eleanor of Aquitaine in Wace’s Roman de Brut and Lawman’s Brut.” In Wheeler and Parsons 319-336.

Underhill, Frances. “Elizabeth de Burgh: Connoisseur and Patron.” In McCash: 266-287.

Walker, Alice. In Search of Our Mother’s Gardens. Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 212-219.

Weston, L. M. C. “Women’s Medicine, Women’s Magic: The Old English Metrical Charms.” Modern Philology 92 (1995): 279-293.

Wheeler, Bonnie and John C. Parsons, eds. Eleanor of Aquitaine: Lord and Lady. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.

Wheeler, Bonnie and Charles T. Wood, eds. Fresh Verdicts on Joan of Arc. NY: Garland, 1996.

Wilson, Alan J. St. Margaret Queen of Scotland. Edinburgh: John Donald Publishers LTD, 1993.

Wilson, Katharina M., ed. Medieval Women Writers. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press, 1984.

Wittig, Monique. “One Is Not Born a Woman.” Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 544-551.

Wollstonecraft, Mary. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 43-47.

Woolf, Virginia. A Room of One’s Own. Boston, MA: A Harvest Book/Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1989.

—. A Room of One’s Own. Excerpted in Gilbert and Gubar 2007: 128-137.